Study Context

Source: Kenya
  2000 2010 2020
Total fertility rate 5.2 4.4 3.4
Crude mortality rate
(per 1000)
13 7 5
Urban population growth 4.5% 4.4% 4%
Unemployment rate 3% 2.8% 5.7%
Source: World Bank
Source: Nairobi
  2003 2008 2015
Population size (mil) 2.481 3 3.914
Access to sufficient living area 71% 75.3% 77.2%
Access to sanitation 41.8% 47% 55.8%
Access to transport     58.03%
Source: Macro Trends & UN Habitat

Site Description

The site includes two informal slum settlements in the capital city, Nairobi – Korogocho and Viwandani – covered by the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) and administered by the APHRC.

These two informal settlements are characterized by inadequate sanitation, limited health care facilities, low-quality housing, high levels of crime, unemployment and poverty. Infant and child health indices are very poor. Both sites are multi-ethnic and include people from the Kikuyu (30%), Kamba (24%), Luhya (18%), and Luo (12%) ethnic groups, among others.

Source: Korogocho
Source: Viwandani

The DSS collects census data every 6 months on fertility, mortality, migration, marital status, educational attainment, ethnicity, household composition, selected child health indicators and household socio-economic status. From 2003 to 2018, the population of Korogocho grew from 30,021 to 36,276 and from 37,825 to 52,698 in Viwandani.

Source: Wamukoya et al. 2020

While the two settlements share many commonalities, Viwandani has higher formal sector employment opportunities and a more mobile population than Korogocho. This offers us a unique opportunity to examine intra slum differences in kinship support and marriage.

Source: Wamukoya et al. 2020